Accords commerciaux dans le monde entier: Juin 2021

World Trade News (Image: teal world viewed from space with connection lines spreading across the image)

Trade Deals Around the World est notre mise à jour périodique, qui vous donne un aperçu rapide et facile de ce qui s'est passé dans les nombreuses négociations d'accords commerciaux dans le monde. Découvrez-le dans cet article.

Nous nous concentrons sur l'Union européenne et le Royaume-Uni et gardons un œil sur la Chine et les États-Unis.

L'Union européenne et l'Inde

On dit que l'Union européenne et l'Inde remettent sur les rails les négociations en vue d'un accord de libre-échange. C'est ce que rapporte Reuters:

Talks were put on hold in 2013 as both sides failed to bridge differences, such as over the extent of tariff reductions, patent protection, data security and the right of Indian professionals to work in Europe.

The draft statement also sets the stage for an agreement for the EU and India to build joint infrastructure projects around the world in the transport, energy and digital sectors.

The deal would follow a similar accord between the EU and Japan in 2019, seeking an alternative to Chinese largesse that raised suspicion in the West and Tokyo.

L'Union européenne et la Suisse

Actuellement, il n'existe pas (encore) d'accord commercial entre l'Union européenne et la Suisse. La relation économique entre les deux s'est construite à partir de dizaines d'accords bilatéraux. Certains d'entre eux commencent à être obsolètes, et l'un d'entre eux l'est déjà. C'est ce que rapporte Bloomberg:

Failure of the two sides to reach a new umbrella political treaty is turning into economic death by a thousand cuts for the Helvetian nation as it faces increasing barriers to the single market that surrounds it. A further deterioration in ties could hurt Switzerland’s electricity market, its industrial companies or its banking sector, which is keen to win more cross-border business with the EU.

L'Union européenne et la Malaisie

L'UE a été active dans la région de l'Asie du Sud en concluant des accords commerciaux avec le Vietnam et Singapour. D'autres pays de la région sont désormais également intéressés par la reprise des négociations commerciales. L'un d'entre eux est la Malaisie, comme le rapporte DW.

Now, there also appears to be some progress over a free-trade pact with Malaysia, after two key industry groups last month announced that they will work together to lobby both Brussels and Kuala Lumpur to restart talks that broke down in 2012. 

Talks over a free-trade agreement began in 2010 but stalled two years later, after seven rounds, at the request of Malaysia. A "stocktaking exercise" was carried out by both sides in 2016, but Kuala Lumpur decided against restarting trade talks.

L'Union européenne et la Chine

Les négociations sur un accord d'investissement entre l'Union européenne et la Chine ont été mises en attente par l'Union européenne. C'est ce que rapporte Politico :

The European Commission has temporarily put on hold efforts to ratify the investment agreement with China, EU Trade Commissioner Valdis Dombrovskis told Agence France-Presse Tuesday.

"We have ... for the moment suspended some efforts to raise political awareness on the part of the Commission, because it is clear that in the current situation, with the EU sanctions against China and the Chinese counter-sanctions, including against members of the European Parliament, the environment is not conducive to the ratification of the agreement," Dombrovskis told the French news agency.

La Chine et le RCEP et le TPP

Dans l'intervalle, la Chine a signé le plus grand accord commercial du monde, le Partenariat économique global régional (RCEP). Le RCEP regroupe désormais 15 pays asiatiques.

L'Informateur rapporte :

The signing of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) at a regional summit in Hanoi is another blow to the agreement promoted by former US President Barack Obama, from which Trump left in 2017. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) could strengthen China’s position as a partner country. Economic with Southeast Asia, Japan and Korea, which puts the second-largest economy in the world in a better position to dictate the rules of trade in the region.

Elle tente également d'adhérer à l'accord global et progressif pour les membres du partenariat transpacifique (TPP). Bloomberg rapporte :

The Trans-Pacific Partnership was envisioned by the U.S. as an economic bloc to balance China’s growing power, with then-President Barack Obama saying in 2016 that the U.S., not China, should write the regional rules of trade. His successor Donald Trump pulled out of the deal in 2017, with Japan leading the revised and renamed pact to a successful conclusion the following year.

Many of the CPTPP nations are heavily dependent on trade with China, but China’s increasingly poor image in some nations may make it harder to agree on entry. Concerns over labor practices, state-owned companies and its economic confrontation with America also loom as potential roadblocks for entry.

La Chine et les États-Unis

Une guerre commerciale est toujours en cours entre les États-Unis et la Chine. Un accord de première phase a été conclu, mais la Chine n'a toujours pas respecté sa part du marché. C'est ce que rapporte CNBC :

...the data showed China’s purchases of U.S. goods reached only 73% of the year-to-date target as of April, the report said.

Based on U.S. data, the level of progress falls to 60%, the institute said.

By category, agriculture came the closest to reaching the year-to-date target, at 79% based on U.S. data and 87% based on Chinese data.

The two-year agreement is set to end in December. Chinese purchases of U.S. goods fell more than 40% short in 2020, according to the institute.

Autres nouvelles sur les accords commerciaux

● Boris Johnson tente de conclure un accord commercial avec l'Australie. Vous en saurez plus en lisant les articles de Bloomberg et The Guardian.

● Le Royaume-Uni a fait une offre pour rejoindre l'Accord global et progressif pour le partenariat transpacifique (CPTPP), que le Japon a appuyé, comme le rapporte Reuters.

● Après l'Union européenne, voilà que le Royaume-Uni a également conclu un accord commercial avec le Vietnam, ce qui augmente ses chances de rejoindre le CPTPP, comme le rapporte CGTN.  

● Le Royaume-Uni a également entamé des négociations avec l'Arabie saoudite et les Émirats arabes unis, comme le rapporte Arabian Business. Selon Arab News, le Royaume-Uni souhaite conclure des accords commerciaux avec tous les pays du Conseil de coopération du Golfe.